2016 год, №6

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TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE: UNTRANSLATED REGIONS AND THE STOP CODONS
Rebrikov D.V., Tarasov V.V.
Стр. 4 — 9
4P medicine is impossible without an efficient transfer of advanced laboratory techniques (such as regenerative cell technology, high-throughput sequencing, genome editing, etc.) into clinical practice. Translational Medicine - a new scientific field, designed to reduce the time of transfer of long-term achievements of fundamental scientific research in the development of innovative product applications. However, on the path of innovation in medicine, there are a number of natural barriers that do not allow to go to practice unsafe and ineffective products. The system of these barriers must be dynamic and up-to-date. As well as the education system for work at the "science-medicine" junction.
ANALYSIS OF MILDRONATE EFFECT ON THE CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF CYTOCHROME P450 3A4
Kuzikov A.V., Bulko T.V., Masamrekh R.A., Makhova A.A., Archakov A.I., Usanov S.A., Shikh E.V., Shumyantseva V.V.
Стр. 10 — 15
In this work, we have studied the effect of mildronate on the catalytic properties of cytochrome P450 3A4. The analysis of the catalytic activity was carried out using electrochemical methods, with cytochrome P450 3A4 immobilized on the electrode surface. In the presence of 50 pM mildronate, no increase was observed in the turnover number of cytochrome P450 3A4-dependent N-demethylation of erythromycin. The values of the turnover number k calculated from the product formed by the reaction were 6.1 ± 0.6 min (P450 3A4 + erythromycin) and 5.5 ± 1.4 min (P450 3A4 + erythromycin + mildronate). Thus, electroanalysis of cytochrome P450 3A4 catalytic activity demonstrated the possibility of a safe and effective complex drug therapy with concurrent administration of mildronate and the macrolide (erythromycin).
IODINE QUANTIFICATION WITH COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FOR THE PURPOSE OF DOSE ASSESSMENT IN CONTRAST ENHANCED RADIOTHERAPY
Lipengolts A.A., Budaeva J.A., Blaickner M., Cherepanov A.A., Menkov M.A., Kulakov V.N., Grigorieva E.Yu.
Стр. 16 — 19
In vivo quantitative determination of high-Z elements such as iodine gadolinium, gold, etc. is an important issue for contrast enhanced radiotherapy (CERT) that aggravates its clinical implementation. X-ray computed tomography (CT) could be a reliable, convenient and universal method for this task. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of iodine quantification with CT in a tissue equivalent phantom, meeting the demands for CERT. The results show a linear relationship between iodine concentration and radiopacity on tomographic images expressed in Hounsfield units (HU) over an iodine concentration range of 0.5-50 mg/ml. Furthermore, iodine quantification with CT proofed to be suitable for CERT since the deviation between CT-derived and actual iodine concentration does not exceed 5 % in the concentration range of 10-50 mg/ml. More significant deviations were observed for concentrations below 5 mg/ml with up to 80 %, which is still acceptable for CERT since the corresponding error for the absorbed dose in that range is less than 2.8 %. X-ray beam hardening within the tissue equivalent object does not significantly influence the accuracy of iodine quantification. The placement of iodine water solutions at the surface or in the centre of a visualized object during iodine quantification leads to a less than 2 % change in the determined iodine concentration.
CARRIER FREQUENCY OF AND MUTATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS AND GALACTOSEMIA IN THE RUSSIAN POPULATION
Abramov D.D., Belousova M.V., Kadochnikova V.V., Ragimov A.A., Trofimov D.Yu.
Стр. 20 — 23
This article continues a series of works estimating carrier frequencies of mutations associated with the development of common monogenic disorders in the Russian population. The study aimed to establish the frequency of and mutations in first-time blood donors. Genotyping of 1000 first-time blood donors who identify themselves as Russians and permanently reside in the Russian Federation detected 37 carriers of mutations associated with sensorineural hearing loss (carrier frequency in the sample was 3.7 %, or 1 : 27) and 6 carriers of mutations associated with galactosemia (carrier frequency in the sample was 0.6 %, or 1 : 167). In one carrier, concurrent mutations were detected; thus, in total 42 carriers of and mutations were detected (carrier frequency in the sample was 4.2 %, or 1 : 24).
CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF GENETIC MARKERS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF PREDISPOSITION TO MULTIFACTORIAL TRAITS
Nizamutdinov I.I., Korostin D.O., Il'inskii V.V., Rakitko A.S.
Стр. 24 — 30
The principle of multifactorial traits (MTs) inheritance relies on the presence of a large number of genetic markers, with each marker contributing to the probability of developing those traits. This work proposes an algorithm for the selection of DNA markers that could be used to develope a prognostic test system for the assessment of individual predisposition to MTs. The method is based on the selection of genetic markers that have demonstrated a statistically significant association with an MT under consideration and have been described as functionally significant polymorphisms affecting MT development. If the functional significance of a polymorphism has not been described so far, then to be reliably associated with an MT, this polymorphism is expected to achieve genome-wide significance in one of the studies and such significance must be confirmed in an independent sample. Papers that are used to assess the association of genetic markers with MTs are expected to meet the proposed criteria depending on the study type.
NUCLEAR MEDICINE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF RENAL AND CORONARY ANGIOPATHIES IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE
Kharina D.S., Poletaeva T.A., Kondakov A.K., Mosin D.Yu., Znamensky I.A.
Стр. 31 — 36
The number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing necessitating the development of new strategies for early detection of the disease. Here, radionuclide imaging may be a promising diagnostic technique. We have conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records and scintigrams of patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 83) and impaired glucose tolerance (n = 52) to evaluate the effectiveness of dynamic renal scintigraphy and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy at rest (single-photon emission computed tomography, SPECT) in detecting coronary and renal angiopathies. The control group consisted of patients with normal levels of blood sugar. To evaluate the functional state of the renal parenchyma, we conducted a qualitative analysis of patients’ scintigrams and renographic curves; the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was evaluated using Gates and Cockroft-Gault methods; myocardial scarring was evaluated using perfusion SPECT images synchronized with ECG. The functional activity of the renal parenchyma was shown to decrease significantly in patients with type 2 DM (Pearson’s chi-squared test was applied, p-value was 0.03). With Gates method applied, GFR in both experimental groups was significantly lower than in the controls (Mann-Whitney U was calculated; p-value was 0.0004 and 0.0002, respectively). In patients with type 2 DM, GFR was lower than in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (p = 0.0004). With Cockroft-Gault method applied, we observed the same GFR pattern; however, the difference between patients with impaired glucose tolerance and the controls was insignificant (p = 0.08). The correlation between GFR values obtained using different methods was moderate in all groups (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient rs = 0.53, with p = 0.038).
DYNAMICS OF FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF THYROCYTES IN THE SETTING OF CHANGING MORPHOFUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF MAST CELLS OF THE THYROID GLAND UPON INFRARED LASER THERAPY
Smelova I.V., Golovneva E.S.
Стр. 37 — 42
Exposure to laser radiation is an interesting method of treating hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis. Its effect depends on the applied radiation dose. Degranulation of stromal mast cells of the thyroid gland (mastocytes) is dose dependent; release of granular contents into the surrounding tissues may affect microcirculation, result in the increased activity of the thyroid epithelium or stimulate the thyroid. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of moderate-intensity infrared laser radiation at total surface doses of 112 and 450 J/cm on the functional state of mast cells and blood serum levels of thyroid gland hormones in healthy and hypothyroid subjects. The experiment was carried out in 78 random-bred mature male rats. Hypothyroidism was modeled by per os administration of 25 mg/kg Mercazolil (Akrikhin, Russia) for 21 days. Radiation therapy was performed using a IRE-Polus laser with a wavelength of 970 nm (NTO IRE-Polus, Russia). The animals received radiation therapy for 5 days and were sacrificed 1, 7, and 30 days after the experiment. Subsequently, we calculated the total number of mast cells, degranulated mastocytes, mastocytes with degree 1, 2 and 3 degranulation, degranulation coefficient, and levels of TSH in blood serum. Mast cells of the intact thyroid gland demonstrated low sensitivity to laser radiation, but hormone levels changed soon after radiation was discontinued. In the animals with hypothyroidism induced by thiamazole (the active component of Mercazolil), activation of mast cells was observed in the recovery period after the drug was discontinued. Hypothyroidism was accompanied by changes in TSH, T and T levels in blood serum. Comparison of the effects of two laser therapy modes in the animals with induced hypothyroidism revealed increased functional activity of mastocytes and normalized levels of secreted hormones at a total dose of 112 J/cm and reduced mast cell activity at a total dose of 450 J/cm.
CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION
Shelkovnikova T.V., Takhchidi Kh.P., Volkov A.N., Shishlyannikova N.Yu.
Стр. 43 — 47
The number of patients with retinal venous occlusions is increasing, especially among young people. Often, they have revealed a genetic predisposition to thrombosis. Risk factors for thrombosis are genetic resistance to activated protein C (RAPC), genetic defect in factor V (FV Leiden) and the presence of lupus anticoagulant (LA). In this study we analyze the dependence of the various parameters of hemostasis in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) on the background of FV Leiden mutation and LA. A total of 150 patients (150 eyes) with RVO (mean age - 42 ± 10 years) were examined and divided into three groups. Group 1: patients with RVO, FV Leiden and LA (n = 12); group 2: patients with RVO and FV Leiden (n = 11) without LA; group 3: patients with RVO without FV Leiden and LA, selected from remaining 107 people for a comparable number of groups (n = 30). The control group was 50 people without RVO, but with hypertension. It was shown that RAPC index in patients with FV Leiden mutation and the LA has the less value (0,6 ± 0,01) on comparison to patients with RVO (1,50 ± 0,18) (p
STOLEN SCIENCE: WHY PLAGIARISM AND SELF-PLAGIARISM ARE UNACCEPTABLE
Kulikova E.Yu.
Стр. 48 — 51
Plagiarism is appropriation of someone else's ideas, texts, images and other materials without acknowledging their author. It is a serious violation of publication ethics that once detected results in the retraction of the submitted article. It has a disastrous impact on the author's reputation, because the publication is not removed from online databases, but stored there with a retracted publication tag. Plagiarism comes in different forms many of which still cannot be detected even by a special software; Plagiarism comes in different forms; the originality of an article is still assessed by peer reviewers and readers in the first place. Plagiarism can be unintentional. Most often, poor citation and reference style is typical of young researchers. To avoid unpleasant situations, authors are advised to use paraphrasing instead of merely copying and pasting fragments of texts. A verbatim use of a source requires quotation marks, references are expected to come right after the fragment borrowed from the original source; with multiple references (from 5 tol 0) pointing to a single idea are bad style. Authors are advised to always double check basic information about the publication they specify in a reference. The first author and a corresponding author are expected to monitor the quality of their co-authors’ work. Full or partial copying of a previously published article by the same author is considered self-plagiarism and does not comply with the guidelines of the majority of academic journals.