Forests are unique and one of the most important ecosystems on Earth, occupying the third part of the land. They are characterized by a high productivity and the accumulation of a large part of the organic matter of the planet, which is presented in the form of wood, detritus, humus. Forests play a major role in the water cycle, enrich the atmosphere with oxygen and maintain the level in the content of carbon dioxide. According to the state forest register on 1 January 2014 the total forest area of the Orenburg region is 721,6 thousand hectares All forests of the Orenburg region for the intended purpose are classified as protection forests. Protective forests perform important functions such as habitat, water protection, protection from wind, soil erosion and so on), health, Wellness. That is why the study state forests of the Orenburg region on the example of Orenburg forestry and identification of the main factors preventing their formation, development and functioning. is the most relevant. Studies were conducted on the territory of the Orenburg forestry, which includes five sub-districts: Komsomolskaya, Blagoslovennoe, Orenburg, Nizhyn, Pavlovsk statistical, mathematical methods, and analysis of literary sources. The study revealed that forest Orenburg forestry presents Quйrcus rуbur, Pуpulus nнgra, Pуpulus бlba, Pуpulus trйmula, Betula pendula. Mostly rocks are middle-aged, the stability of a class - II, stage of degradation - II, which requires the appointment of forest protection measures. One of the main reasons hindering the formation, development and functioning of forests Orenburg forestry is drought, which can cause fires - another of the main reasons. Fires in the forests of the Orenburg forest change their primary species composition, inhibiting the growth of some types and intensificar the development of other species. In areas covered by ground fire, the undergrowth is mainly dominated by Acer negundo.